It is almost a year since I came to the fork in the road and walked a new path. I started this blog as a way to share my family papers and artifacts; to share my love of history. My passion for this subject never wavered; it has only been placed on the back-burner to simmer.
I am now living on a 110 acre farm- like Winnie the Pooh. As a city girl, this comes with a million new challenges and adventures. We harvested our first maple syrup this year. I am watching the birds return, and the buds open. We will have a few colonies of bees, chickens, and a large garden to keep us busy..
While I have been silent, I have not turned my back on my love of history. There are so many stories I have discovered that I want to share. Many of you have been interested in the Gamsby Manuscript, and I have been honoured to connect with some of you. I will explore this further in the coming year.
Thank you for your interest. As our national literary treasure would say, “You are a kindred spirit.”
It is the morning of the first day of the City Dionysia. The event takes place in Athens, a city state on what is now mainland Greece. It is one of the most powerful cities in the Ancient world. This is the home of modern philosophy, mathematics, democracy and -for our interests- drama.
Athens is a city that has grown into the very hill that surrounds it. The most important temple of Athena, the patron Goddess of the city, stands on the highest hilltop. It overlooks the Mediterranean Sea, and guards the many fishermen who venture out to feed their families and obtain some additional income.
Just below this temple sits the theatre of Dionysus; a theatre dedicated to Dionysus, the God of wine and merriment. The seats are carved into the hill, and almost 15, 000-30,000 citizens can attend this performance. In a matter of hours, as soon as the sun rises, this theatre will hold all of these citizens and more.
The priests in the temple of Dionysus are preparing the statue of the God. They will ceremonially wash, cleanse and feed the statue before he is carried at the front of the crowd of Athenian citizens as they walk to the theatre of Dionysus. He will be placed in the seat of honour at the front of the theatre. A goat will be sacrificed to him, indicating a beginning in the ceremonies.
It is a civic duty to come to this event. Everyone has the day off. The fishermen will not venture out today. The event is important for many reasons : it is honouring the God Dionysus for his help in keeping Athens safe; it is part of the citizen’s civic duty; and it is believed that the act of crying at a tragedy will purify a person.
The God has taken his place at the front of the stage, and people file through the entrance of the theatre and take their seats where they can find them. They have brought food and drink for the day- the performances will last until the sun sets. This will be a week-long event, and everyone has been eagerly awaiting it. Playwrights will compete for a coveted ivy garland that is made of gold, and more importantly the bragging rights to claim themselves the winner of the City Dionysia.
Each playwright must write three tragedies, usually about myth or legend. Originally, when the City Dionysia started, there used to be a huge chorus; sometimes 300 people. They were regular citizens that were required to offer their time to support the competition. Slowly over time, the chorus started to disappear and one or two actors replaced the chorus.
The audience of Athenian citizens can hear the plays very well, even if they sit quite a distance up the hill away from the stage. This is possible because of the natural acoustics of the mountainside and the bowl shape of the theatre. The actors also are wearing large masks over their faces with a hollow mouthpiece that has a megaphone to project their words. The actors wear stylized costumes that communicate their role in the presentation (rich, poor, man or woman). They wear huge platform shoes that add additional height so that the people who are sitting high up on the side of the hill can see them better. They, like their audience, are only men. There is much debate whether women could attend the theatre in Athens.
The day is long and pleasurable: as the sun sets the audience will have seen three tragedies from one playwright and a set of comedies at the end of the day. The god will be returned to his temple, and everyone will spend the rest of the evening discussing the plays over their rice, fish and olives. They still have another six days of performances to experience, and everyone is eager to see the other playwrights’ work.
She challenges Penelope, the loyal wife of Odysseus, for the role of faithful companion. Some ancient texts claim she drank the ashes of her cremated husband in tribute. In history, Artemisia is known for creating a palatial monument for her husband Mausolus, and establishing the name of mausoleum to honour his name for eternity.
She was married to her brother, the time honoured tradition of keeping royal blood in the family. No history seems to remain about their children, but they were married at least twenty years. When Artemisia lost her brother in 351 B.C.E, she continued to build the regal tomb. She survived him by two years before she followed him to this palatial resting place.
It was grand; overlooking the human engineered harbour of Halicarnassus, it stood on a hilltop. The best Greek sculptors were brought to the Eastern outpost under the Persian Empire to carve a magnificent monument to Mausolus and Artemisia; this magnificent structure would command the name of mausoleum for the rest of history.
Surrounded by a courtyard, their mausoleum was a masterpiece that incorporated both ziggurat and pyramid with the craft of Grecian sculpture. Lions adorned the stairway and knights on horses guarded the gates. Wife and husband would stand elegant in their four horse chariot atop the pyramid roof adorning the marble statue, column rich architectural triumph. It could be seen as a temple on a man made mountaintop. Ironically the bodies of the patrons of the Mausoleum might have been buried beneath the imposing structure- only to be looted almost two-thousand years later.
A rebellion of Rhodes challenged Atemisia’s singular power. Her soldiers defeated the Rhodesian aggressors- outwitted by her navy. Taking the banner of the Rhodesian ships, her soldiers conquered Rhodes. She erected at least one statue in triumph to her success: a statue of Athena and one of her own likeness. After the Rhodesians gained their independence, the space around the statues was considered Abaton, or the space was in accessible.
Claimed as one of the seven wonders of the ancient world by Antipater of Sidon, it was written about by historical notables such as Pausanias, Strabo, Vitruvius, Satyrus, Phytheus, valerius Maximus and Pliny the Elder. Alexander the Great claimed the land as his own, being a nephew of Artemisia and Mausolus.
Artemisia’s face, is lost to history, but their love will ever live on in the name of Mausolus, or mausoleum- the building that will honour the resting place of the dead.
Placed in context of the time it was found, the discovery of the Lascaux Cave was overshadowed by a world in crisis. France has just fallen to Nazi rule three months earlier. Four boys, and a dog with the forward thinking name of ‘Robot,’ discovered the Lascaux Cave while on a search for mythical treasure. News of discovery of the cave spread. One of the boys, Jacques Marsal, pleaded with his parents to allow him to guard the cave entrance from vandals who might destroy the ancient site. They acquiesced, and he spent the rest of his life as the chief guide of the cave.
It is not the oldest cave found. The Metropolitan Museum of Art dates the art at around 15, 000 BCE. Roucadour Cave art is estimated to be 24, 000 BCE. Perhaps the Lascaux cave is a beacon for the immigration of a group- or simply an indication that the tradition of cave art was alive and well in prehistory. It is believed to be the best example of Paleolithic cave art. There are approximately 2000 paintings within the cave, and most of them are pictures of animals. Many are pictures of horses and stags. Paintings of animals have been superimposed over older renderings, communicating that artistic quality was less important than the placement and symbolic significance.
There are many interpretations of these paintings: from communicating an understanding of the stars to images based on hallucinations. It is interesting to note that while a regular diet at this time would consist of reindeer, there were no representations of this animal. The cave itself would not have been used for shelter, but possibly a gathering place. Most of the paintings are found in hard to reach locations in the cave, encouraging the belief that they were made as part of a magical ceremony- possibly to increase the chances of success in the hunt. It has been suggested that these caves were chosen based on their ability to be illuminated during the winter solstice (Newgrange might be a descendant of this ritual). Some of the paintings would have needed a form of scaffolding to paint their size, increasing the impressiveness of their creation.
Hollowed out bones were found in the cave, and have some of the pigments used within the shaft. These were evidently used to blow paint onto the wall. The colours that were used on the walls, and in other cave art paintings, are predominantly brown, red, black, white and violet. All of these colours were available to Paleolithic people through iron oxide, calcite, and charcoal. Iron oxide can be mined, and comes in a range of colours: yellow, red, purple and brown ochre. Some historians suggest that the painters at Lascaux might have traveled 25 miles to obtain these precious minerals. The colours were ground up, possibly using bones from the animals they hunted as a pestle, and a hollow in the cave floor being the mortar. The liquid base could be a range of possibilities from blood or urine to animal fat.
Due to human interaction with the cave, the art is in grave danger. Mold, fungus, lichen and crystals threaten the priceless art. A replica cave was created for tourists only 200 meters from the original; an interesting alternative when faced with a curious financially vibrant public.